The Junior Patriot: The Battle of Santiago de Cuba

While the Spanish were forced off  San Juan Heights and cleared off most of Cuba, there was still one Spanish stronghold left: the harbor of Santiago de Cuba.  Surrounded by rugged prepared terrain and several forts and guarded by an army of 15,500 Spanish Regulars commanded by General Jose Velazquez, it seemed like an impregnable fortress.   At least in their minds.  Inside that harbor were the cruisers Infanta Maria Teresa, Almiranta Oquendo, Vizcaya, Cristobal Colon, and the destroyers, the Pluton and Furor of the Spanish Fleet under Admiral Pascual Cervera.  However 15,000 troops from the 5th US Army and 5,000 Cuban insurgents didn’t think so.  Neither did the US Fleet cruisers New York and Brooklyn, the battleships Iowa, Indiana, Oregon, Texas, Massachusetts, and the armed yachts Gloucester and Vixen, or did their commanders, Admiral William Sampson and Commodore Winfield Schley.  

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Armageddon: 1983, Reagan and the Strategy of Psychological Warfare – Full Post

Introduction

By the 1980s, after a decade of détente with the Soviet Union during the Nixon and Carter administrations, the incoming administration under Republican President Ronald Reagan dramatically overhauled the foreign policy strategies of its predecessors and ushered in a new foreign policy initiative of containment to thwart the military influence of Moscow being exercised in the ongoing threat to the NATO allies in Western Europe as well as their growing presence in the Middle East and the Caribbean. The Soviet Union had been a consistent threat to Western Europe for at least 29 years since the end of WWII and the partitioning of the spheres of influence between the Warsaw and NATO powers in East and Western Europe post-1949.  According to a 1990 declassified report by the President’s Foreign Intelligence Advisory Board on the Soviet arms buildup that was being drastically stimulated during this time-period, “From the late 1970’s to the mid-1980’s, the military forces and intelligence services of the Soviet Union were redirected in ways that suggested that the Soviet leadership was seriously concerned about the possibility of a sudden strike launched by the United states and its NATO allies.”

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Armageddon: 1983, Reagan and the Strategy of Psychological Warfare Part One

Introduction

By the 1980s, after a decade of détente with the Soviet Union during the Nixon and Carter administrations, the incoming administration under Republican President Ronald Reagan dramatically overhauled the foreign policy strategies of its predecessors and ushered in a new foreign policy initiative of containment to thwart the military influence of Moscow being exercised in the ongoing threat to the NATO allies in Western Europe as well as their growing presence in the Middle East and the Caribbean. The Soviet Union had been a consistent threat to Western Europe for at least 29 years since the end of WWII and the partitioning of the spheres of influence between the Warsaw and NATO powers in East and Western Europe post-1949.  According to a 1990 declassified report by the President’s Foreign Intelligence Advisory Board on the Soviet arms buildup that was being drastically stimulated during this time-period, “From the late 1970’s to the mid-1980’s, the military forces and intelligence services of the Soviet Union were redirected in ways that suggested that the Soviet leadership was seriously concerned about the possibility of a sudden strike launched by the United states and its NATO allies.”

Continue reading “Armageddon: 1983, Reagan and the Strategy of Psychological Warfare Part One”

Resiliency in America

Some of you may remember this post from last year. However, I think it’s important for us to remember our history and since the events I cover most in-depth happened around this time of year, I thought now was a perfect time to review…

Resilience has been defined as, “the process of adapting well in the face of adversity, trauma, tragedy, threats, or even significant sources of stress…It means ‘bouncing back’ from difficult experiences.”

Ever since the founding of our nation, resiliency has been an integral part of the American spirit.  Let’s look at some of the many ways are history proves this.

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